Initailly isolated from the hindgut of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, and subsequently localized in the nervous systems of a number of arthropods, this peptide has chronotropic and inotropic effects on decapod hearts. It causes graded contractures of some visceral and skeletal muscles in insects and crustaceans.
Ref: Brüstle, B. et.al. J. Exp. Biol. 204, 2627 (2001 ); Brown, BE. and A. Starrat, J. Insect Physiol. 21, 1879 (1975). Wilkens, J. et al. J. Exp. Biol. 208, 737 (2005).