Tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) is one of the fluorophores most often used for preparing peptide, protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid conjugates, especially fluorescent antibodies and avidin derivatives used in immunochemistry. TMR dyes have been widely used as acceptors for FAM fluorophores in a variety of FRET studies. The succinimidyl esters of 5-TAMRA, 6-TAMRA or the mixed isomers are the primary labeling reagents.
Hahn M, et al. (2001). Influence of fluorophore dye labels on the migration behavior of polymerase chain reaction-amplified short tandem repeats during denaturing capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 22, 2691-700; Hsu TM, et al. (2001). Genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms by the invader assay with dual-color fluorescence polarization detection. Clin Chem 47, 1373-7.