This is a 3.9kDa 36-amino acid peptide called beta-Defensin-1 (hBD-1) having a beta sheet with three intramolecular disulfide bonds. It is constitutively produced by various epithelial tissues including urogenital and respiratory tracts. It's expression is also inducible in keratinocytes of whole human skin by lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycan. hBD-1 exhibits antimicrobial activity against several pathogenic microorganisms including E.coli, although its activity is dependent on salt sensitivity, because it is inhibited by salt in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition to its antimicrobial activity, hBD-1 chemoattracts CC chemokine receptor (CCR)6-expressing HEK293 cells, implying that this peptide utilizes CCR6 as a receptor.