Mitochondrial Bioactive Peptides
Mitochondrial Bioactive Peptides
Mitochondrial Derived Peptides (MDPs)
Fig 1. Schematic representation of the mitochondrial genome encoding the MDPs in the 16S and 12S rRNAs.

Recent mitochondrial transcriptome analyses reveals the existence of small RNAs with short open reading frames (sORFs) derived from mtDNA previously undetected.

These sORFS led to the discovery of MDPs encoded and transcribed by the mitochondria.

These newly discovered peptides can play key roles in age-related diseases such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis etc.

Check out our collection of MDPs
Peptides
Cat #
Sequence
MOTS-c
MRWQEMGYIFYPRKLR
Humanin
MAPRGFSCLLLLTSEIDLPVKRRA
SHLP1
MCHWAGGASNTGDARGDVFGKQAG
SHLP3
MLGYNFSSFPCGTISIAPGFNFYRLYFIWVNGLAKVVW
SHLP4
MLEVMFLVNRRGKICRVPFTFFNLSL
SHLP6
MLDQDIPMVQPLLKVRLFND

What can MDPs do?

MDPs, which have been identified to be encoded within the mitochondria, impart a new paradigm to mitochondrial function. These MDPs (Humanin, MOTS-c and SHLPs) can function to play roles in reviving cellular aging in disease states including diabetes, obesity, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases.

Humanin
SHLPs
MOTS-c
Atherosclerosis
Alzheimer's
Apoptosis
Diabetes
Obesity
The MDPs are released from the mitochondria into the cytosol under stress, stimulated via metabolic aging or disease mechanisms. MDPs also are released via retrograde signaling due to free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium influx.
Consequently, cell death and signaling ensues to revive normal cellular activities to help ameliorate cellular aging. An in silico search revealed additional peptides in the same region of mtDNA as humanin; named as small humanin‐like peptides (SHLPs). The identified functional roles for these peptides and the potential mechanisms of actions differ in their abilities to regulate cell viability in vitro, and hence imply roles in disease mechanisms like apoptosis.
Related Peptides
Cat #
Humanins sHNG, [Gly14]-HN, [Gly14]-Humanin
[Ala8]-Humanin, [Ala8]-HN, sHNA
Colivelin
Related Assay Kits for oxidative stress
Cat #
Glutathione Assays SensoLyteŽ Total GSH Assay Kit *Colorimetric*
SensoLyteŽ 520 Total GSH Assay Kit *Fluorimetric*
SensoLyteŽ GST Activity Assay Kit *Fluorimetric*
SensoLyteŽ Glutathione Cellular Assay Kit *Fluorimetric*
NADP/NADPH Assays SensoLyteŽ NADP/NADPH Assay Kit *Fluorimetric*
Thiol Quantification SensoLyteŽ Thiol Quantitation Assay Kit *Colorimetric*
SensoLyteŽ ABD - F Thiol Quantitation Assay Kit *Fluorimetric*
Peroxidase Assays SensoLyteŽ ADHP Peroxidase Assay Kit *Fluorimetric*
SensoLyteŽ ADHP Hydrogen Peroxide Assay Kit *Fluorimetric*
SensoLyteŽ Luminescent Peroxidase Assay Kit *Luminometric*
SensoLyteŽ Luminescent Peroxidase ELISA Assay Kit *Luminometric*
Related Dyes for probing mitochondrial membrane potential
Cat #
Rhodamine TMRE (Tetramethylrhodamine, ethyl ester, perchlorate)
TMRM (Tetramethylrhodamine, methyl ester, perchlorate)
Cyanine JC-1

References

1. Cobb L. J. et al., A 8 (4), 796-808 (2016).
2. Okada A. K. et al., Sci Reports 7 (7802), 1-10 (2017).
3. Lee C., et al., Cell Met 21, 443-454 (2015).