Calcium homeostasis is finely regulated by Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), Calcitonin and Vitamin D.
A decrease in blood calcium concentration triggers the release of PTH from the parathyroid glands. This 84-amino acid hormone plays important roles in calcium homeostasis of bone, kidney, breast, and placenta. PTH signals via the PTH/PTHrP and PTH2 receptors. PTH (1–34) administration suppresses cardiovascular calcification and down-regulates aortic osteogenic programs driven by diabetes and dyslipidemia.
An increase of calcium concentration, stimulates the release of Calcitonin, a 32-amino acid peptide from the thyroid parafollicular cells (C-cells).
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