The cardiovascular system
The cardiovascular system, comprising of and regulated by a complex network of effectors, also includes unique peptide systems involved in the regulation of processes governing cardiac health, blood vessels tone, and blood pressure.
These peptides are known to play important roles specifically involving the two major pathways, the coagulation and the renin-angiotensin pathways.
Owing to certain structural motifs and properties, some of the peptides function as agonists while others function as antagonists. For example, some of the protease-activated receptors modulators act as agonists in mediating cellular effects of thrombin while others function as antagonists, thereby participating to the overall regulation of thrombosis and hemostasis.